Study Method

* If you haven’t already, ready this basic introduction to Study and Practice. Also see Beginning Study
*श्री नागराजजी द्वारा हिंदी के लिए यहाँ देखें 

The objective of study & practice is to have answers to every why, what and how = having resolution or samadhan. ‘Resolution’ is possible via transformation to human consciousness & awakening, that results in happiness, peace, satisfaction & bliss.

The method consists of Study (अध्ययन) & Practice (अभ्यास) that takes one through the four following stages or grounds:

1. Listening (shravan): 

  • Systematic study of texts & listening to the meaning of the word, usage of analysis,  logical-reasoning & understanding. Be convinced about the validity of the proposal, the path & ability to have the understanding oneself.

2. Reflection & Meditation (manan):

  • Ceaseless reflection on the truths – on the meaning in memory, scrutiny & discrimination, becoming involved with the meaning, practice in living.

3. Immediate Knowledge & Concentration (sakshatkar, avdharna)

  • Direct identification of the realities in existence, confirmation & establishment

4. Realization (anubhav)

  • Complete acceptance and understanding of realities and living accordingly thereafter.

These steps are further elaborated below:

Practice: (अभ्यास)

  • Intellectual, Spoken & bodily activities for obtaining the answer to Why? and What?

Study: (अध्ययन)

  • “Becoming in the form of the truth or tadakaar: Our imagination  becoming in the form of, attuned to the meanings indicated by words*,  in the form of realities, itself is becoming tadakaar [तदाकार होना – शब्द के अर्थ में स्वरुप में अस्तित्व में वस्तु के साथ तदाकार होना]
    • [* word given in madhyasth darshan]
  • The combined procedure of listening, meditation & immediate-knowledge is adhyayan. (श्रवण मनन निदिध्यासन की संयुक्त प्रक्रिया ही अध्ययन है) 

Study and Practice go together. Study itself is Practice

We deploy our faculty of imagination (visioning & thoughts) to understand Reality. We use our ability of knowledge-perspective, or knowledge-cognition (gyan drishti, gochar) instead of the sensory-perspective or sensory-cogniton (chakshu drishti, gochar) for our study. This is essential to understand the ‘formless’ dimensions of reality.

We progress through the following four stages in our Study & Practice:


Stage1: Listening (श्रवण)  -> (Acceptance & Understanding)

  • Literature Study-Practice (शास्त्राभ्यास)
    • Glimpse of Reality (भास्): “Acceptance of the meaning of the written and spoken word – the ultimate truth of Coexistence coming in imagination”-  Apprehending via external inputs from the books/ spoken / media
    • Semblance of Reality (आभास) “With the word & meaning in imagination, usage of logic for consistency of meaning, as a result of which, the entity/reality becomes clear”
  • Verification whether the proposal is a) Universal b) Live-able c) Teachable
  • Distinguish between acceptable (universal, right) and un-acceptable (criminal, wrong) behavior: Acceptance of living in ‘social law’ – righteous-wealth, fidelity in marital relationship & kindness in  behavior (स्वधन, स्वनारी/स्वपुरुष, दयापूर्ण व्यवहार)
  • Outcome –
    • Completion of systematic study & logical understanding, comes in memory (विधिवत अध्ययन एवं तर्क संतुष्ट होना, स्मरण में होना )
    • Desire for knowing and living according to the truth (वास्तविकता को जानने एवं जीने के लिए इच्छा )


Stage2: Reflection & Meditation (मनन)  -> (Preparation for Concentration)

  • Semblance of Reality complete (आभास पूरा ) – becomes apparent
  • Contemplative Practice  (साक्षात्कार  के लिए अभ्यास ) 
    • Discriminating Study (विवेकात्मक अध्ययन)
    • Weighing/evaluation on the basis of Justice-Religion-Truth (न्याय धर्म सत्य तुलन)
    • Scrutiny & Observation (निरीक्षण परीक्षण) of (a)Existence, (b)Activities in the Self or jeevan & (c) Living.
    • Witnessing and evaluating the activities in the Mun, vritti, chitta (मन, वृत्ति, चित्त)
    • Distinguish between changing and changeless dimensions of reality & laws of living
  • Behavioral Practice (व्यवहाराभ्यास)
    • Living according to Intellectual law, Social law, Natural law – नियम अनुसार जीना + व्यवस्था में भागीदारी 
    • In Family: Fulfilment of human responsibilities and duties – participation in justice, production/seva & exchange – परिवार व्यवस्था में भागीदारी 
    • In Society – via the family, participation towards the larger order/good – in education, public awareness, health, production, etc –  समाज व्यवस्था में भागीदारी 
  • Practice of Work (कर्माभ्यास)
    • Physical efforts needed for fulfillment of material needs that are synchronous with ‘natural law’ and ‘social law’
  • Outcome
    • Intense Desire – Priority established of Justice-Religion-Truth over Preference-Health-Profit (मानसिकता, अर्थात चित्त वृत्तियों में न्याय-धर्म-सत्य का प्राथमिकता , तीव्र इच्छा होना) 
    • Living with semblance of humanness (मानवीय जीवन का आभास पूरा होना)
    • Concentrating the mental faculties on the realities to be known (Existence, Conscious Self & Humane Conduct that exist in memory/as imaging) (स्मरण रूपी श्रवण के अर्थ में चित्त वृत्ति द्वारा ध्यान देना – अस्तित्व, चैतन्य जीवन एवं मानवीय आचरण)


Stage3: Immediate Knowledge  (साक्षात्कार)  & preformation (अवधारणा)  -> Stability & Concentration

  • Direct identification/understanding of the realities of Justice-Religion-Truth devoid of logic, form, words & living accordingly (रूप गुण स्वभाव धर्म के संयुक्त रूप में साक्षात्कार)
  • Having credibility (प्रतीति). Definitive acceptance  (निश्चयात्मक स्वीकृति): Comprehending, understanding the meaning, Reality. (वास्तविकता का साक्षात्कार एवं स्वीकृति)
  • Alternative terms – प्रतीति, साक्षात्कार, निदिध्यासन
  • Contemplative Practice (चिन्तनाभ्यास) and Behavioral Practice (व्यवहाराभ्यास)
    • Contemplation on the Truths known, the purpose of Entities & Living accordingly with humane conduct (सत्यता एवं वस्तुओं के प्रयोजन पर चिंतन, मानवीय दृष्टि विषय स्वभाव सहित जीना)
  • Knowledge of  state-full truth & relative truth as-it-is ( वस्तुगत सत्य, वस्तु स्थिति सत्य).
  • Outcome
    • Stability from Sakshatkar (स्थिरता)
      • Establishment (धारणा) & Regulation of the mental faculties in human consciousness (मानवीयतापूर्ण जीवन के अनन्तर न्याय-धर्म-सत्य रूपी वांछित वस्तु देश एवं तत्व में चित्त वृत्तियों का संयंत होना)
      • Awakening of Activity-Force (क्रिया शक्ति जागरण)
    • Avdharna (अवधारणा)
      • Concentration established in the realities to be known – Established in Meditation, (धारणा पर पूर्णाधिकार के अनन्तर उसके वांछित भाग अथवा सारभूत भाग में चित्त-वृत्तियों का केन्द्रीभूत होना – निष्ठा , ध्यान ) 
      • Awakening of the Desiring-Force (इच्छा शक्ति जागरण)
    • Happiness, Peace & Contentment (सख, शांति, संतोष)


Stage4: Realization   (अनुभव)   -> (Understanding & Realization, Centralized Concentration) – बोध, अनुभव = केंद्रीकृत ध्यान

  • Complete Acceptance of absolute truth, state-full truth and relative truth (स्थिति सत्य, वस्तुगत सत्य, वस्तुस्थिति सत्य की पूर्ण स्वीकृति)
  • Direct Experience of ultimate nature of Reality: of Coexistence, of Self & human nature: Complete knowledge of Pervasive Space (Brahman), Coexistence,  evolution, development, awakening progression, awakening = ‘Material and Conscious nature saturated in pervasive space (व्यापक सत्ता में भीगा, घिरा, डूबा प्रकृति का बोध एवं अनुभव)
  • The satisfaction point of knowing and believing. Nothing left to be “known”.
  • Outcome 
    • Immersion of the chitta, vritti & sankalpa (buddhi) in but the meaning, the value of the Aim. (ध्येय के मूल्य मात्र में, अथवा अर्थ मात्र में चित्त वृत्ति एवं संकल्प (बुद्धि) का निमग्न होना – सत्तामयता में अनुभूति)
    • Awakening of the Knowledge-Force (ज्ञान शक्ति जागरण)
    • Living with evidence of Realization, Thought & Behavior (अनुभव, विचार, व्यव्हार प्रमाण,)
    • Happiness, Peace, Contentment & Bliss (सुख, शांति, संतोष, आनंद की निरंतरता)


The study of reality according to Madhyasth Darshan does not include any  ‘ prevalent meditative-practices’, ‘need to close ones eyes’,  or ‘mystical-experiences’. This is being mentioned here in order to avoid confusing this with other philosophies/darshan, where the words like ‘Shravan, Manan, Nididhyasan’, etc used are similar, but with a different intended meaning. See definitions.
The objectives, method & outcomes of study in madhyasth darshan does not derive from or based on Vedanta, the YogaSutras or Buddhism, etc. Terms may be similar or have some overlaps.
# Stages 1, 2 &   3 above are both sequential and cyclical. Study needs guidance from a living human being, that has this understanding.
See resources, notes and pointers in Guidance for Study

Original Hindi by Shri A Nagraj:

डाउनलोड करे

  • a) Selected transcripts of dialogues on method of study (अध्ययन प्रक्रिया पर संवादों से चुने हुए भाग ) [in Hindi]
  • (b) Selected portions from the Literature related to Method of Study (अभ्यास-अध्ययन प्रक्रिया पर पुस्तकों से चुने हुए सूत्र) [in Hindi]
  • (c) Definitions of terms related to Study (अभ्यास-अध्ययन प्रक्रिया संबंधी मुख्य परिभाषाएं) [in Hindi]
  • (d) ‘Adhyayan roopee upasana‘ – selected sections from the book ‘Karmdarshan (अध्ययन रूपी उपासना)’  ][in Hindi]

-shriram n | student | june 2013 | updated – January 2017
en English