Method of Study (Adhyayan Vidhi)


Read this basic introduction to Study and Practice first

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** नागराजजी द्वारा अध्ययन विधि पर प्रामाणिक लेख संकलन
सम्पूर्ण अध्ययन सामग्री - संकलन

The objective of study & practice is to have the understanding, or answers to every why, what and how. This is called resolution or samadhan. 'Resolution' is possible via transformation to human consciousness & awakening, that results in happiness, peace, satisfaction & bliss.


- Introduction -

The method consists of Study (अध्ययन) & Practice (अभ्यास) that takes one through the four following stages or grounds:


Stage 1. Theoretical Understanding

  • We systematically study the literature to access the underlying meanings denoted. The meanings cover
    • the Conscious Self (jeevan),
    • Existence (astitva darshan),
    • Humane Conduct (manveey aacharan) and
    • Humane Order (akhand samaj, sarvabhoum vyavastha).
  • Via a process of repeated study, we use logical analysis & comparison of different concepts to get a 'composite-view 'of the different aspects of reality, the conscious self (jeevan) & the program for a human (awakening-progression & awakening).
  • At some point, we commit to refocus our lives wholly for this pursuit of the Human Goal (manav ka karykram), of the goal of the conscious self (jeevan ka karykram)
  • We notice gross level changes in our selves, our goals for life and living.
  • We get a wholesome 'view' that mimics all aspects of reality - the material, conscious and spatial in their gross, subtle & causal dimensions.
  • We are convinced about the validity of the proposal, the path,  & ability to have the understanding oneself.
  • We choose a a favourable environment where we can pursue this further: place,  people (fraternity), program and larger-purpose.
  • At this stage, our 'understanding' is largely dependent on words. This is where we reconfirm our beliefs or shravan.
  • This stage is called listening or viewing in or via the mind or shravan.


Stage 2. Focusing & Implementation in Living

  • We further focus on the theoretical understanding obtained to get a distilled view of the different dimensions of reality, to get its semblance. This includes research and cross-referencing across the entire body of literature. 
  • These distilled 'inferences' or nishkarsh, are now as meanings, supported by words. We check and recheck our inferences and shravan for 'confirmation bias' (believing our own beliefs to be true!)
  • We now become involved with these meanings, we implement these inferences in our daily life:
    • We identify the various conscious activities in ourselves via self-scrutiny and observation
    • We deploy these inferences or acceptances in our conduct - in living with humans and in work with nature.
    • We thus practice laws such as non-accumulation, righteous wealth, chastity in marital life, kindness, trust, care, generosity, identifying & fulfilling relationships etc. in daily life,
    • At the same time we identify and let go of undesirable traits in us.
    • This help develop the associated feelings (bhavas) in us
  • This repeated process thus makes our inferences come 'alive', further sharpening them with subtle interconnections and refining the picture/cognition we have. We now are able to deliberate or judge on the basis of a total semblance of the realities of justice-religion & truth (nyaya dharma satya).
  • Maturity in this stage of practice demands a high degree of internal honesty, objectivity, purity, humility & acceptance of coexistential bhavas.
  • We achieve a basic (wavering) level of 'retention' of our mental faculties on these meanings resident in our mind (citta or psyche). We begin to identify the gross & subtle dimensions of conscious (jeevan) activities and external realities and experience interrupted (semblance) of happiness & peace (sukh, shanti)
  • Based on the clarity from such retention & results we get in daily life, we now have the highest intense desire to 'see' these realities ourselves and achieve continuity in our state of contentment.
  • This stage is called Reflection, Meditation, or manan. Here, the object of knowing & living is fixated in our mind or citta, and the activities of analysis and tasting in the mun follow suit. 


Stage 3. Establishment via Confirmation & Practice

  • When the previous practice gives rise to an intense concentration of our mental faculties, we are able to get confirmation of the inferences we have distilled.
  • This happens when we have direct-perception or direct-knowledge of the realities related to any one or more of these inferences.
  • This direct-perception is beyond, or devoid of word and logic. It reveals the associated reality and hence confirms the earlier inferences that were supported by word & logic. This is the beginning of 'knowing'. 
  • This results in immutable contemplative-knowledge of first the subtle and then the causal activities in the conscious self (jeevan) & corresponding dimensions of external reality that is continuous and un-erasable. This is also called profound meditation or nididhyasan.
  • As a result of such knowledge, we become committed to live according to the knowledge gained and strive to bring it in practice and complete our knowledge of the remaining realities via further concentration or focus to achieve unwavering retention.
  • This cyclical process of concentration & behavioural practice leads to a state of 'Fixity' in humane conduct and the experience of developed human consciousness. It doesn't 'move' or 'shake' any more. 
  • We now experience a retention in our experience of happiness, peace and contentement (sukh, shanti, santosh). 
  • This stage is called sakshatkar leading to avdharna. This is 'Study' or Adhyayan that has resulted from the previous Practices, or 'arms of adhyayan'. 


Stage 4. Comprehension & Realization - Concentration

  • Once we have complete mastery over the Establishment or Fixity in developed human consciousness & humane living, we further concentrate our faculties on its essential value or meaning and refine our behaviour & conduct to include Love, or complete acceptance.
  • When this is achieved, we have knowledge about the causal-dimensions of ones conscious self (jeevan), of spatial reality (vyapak, shunya) & the innate nature of external reality (dharma). This is a spiritual accomplishment.
  • This is the 'balance' in knowing and believing & called Comprehension or Bodh, leading to further fineness & abilities in living, followed by final Realization.
  • Realization (or Spiritual Experience) means complete acceptance of the existence of, and fundamental relationship between spatial reality (satya) and all (causal, subtle & gross) dimensions of conscious and material realities. This is called anubhav. 
  • This is the contentment point of knowing & believing. There is nothing left to be 'known'.
  • We then live accordingly, variously expressing justice, religion & truth (nyaya, dharma, satya) - evidencing Human, Godly & Divine Consciousness (मानव, देव मानव, दिव्य मानव प्रमाणित होना )

- Theory -

A theoretical overview of the method of study (adhyayan prakriya) is given below.

Definition of Practice: (अभ्यास)

  • Intellectual, Spoken & bodily activities for obtaining the answer to Why? and What?

Definition of Study: (अध्ययन)

  • “Becoming in the form of the truth or tadakaar: Our imagination  becoming in the form of, attuned to the meanings indicated by words*,  in the form of realities, itself is becoming tadakaar [तदाकार होना – शब्द के अर्थ में स्वरुप में अस्तित्व में वस्तु के साथ तदाकार होना]
    • [* word given in madhyasth darshan]
  • The combined procedure of listening, meditation & direct-perception is adhyayan. (श्रवण मनन निदिध्यासन की संयुक्त प्रक्रिया ही अध्ययन है) 

Study and Practice go together. Study itself is Practice

We deploy our faculty of imagination (visioning & thoughts) to understand Reality. We use our ability of knowledge-perspective, or knowledge-cognition (gyan drishti, gochar) instead of the sensory-perspective or sensory-cogniton (chakshu drishti, gochar) for our study. This is essential to understand the 'formless' dimensions of reality.

We progress through the following four stages or grounds in our Study & Practice:

Ground 1: Listening (श्रवण)  -> (Acceptance & Understanding)

  • Literature Study-Practice (शास्त्राभ्यास)

    • Glimpse of Reality (भास्): "Acceptance of the meaning of the written and spoken word - the ultimate truth of Coexistence coming in imagination"-  Apprehending via external inputs from the books/ spoken / media
    • Semblance of Reality (आभास) "With the word & meaning in imagination, usage of logic for consistency of meaning, as a result of which, the entity/reality becomes clear"
  • Verification whether the proposal is a) Universal b) Live-able c) Teachable
  • Distinguish between acceptable (universal, right) and un-acceptable (criminal, wrong) behavior: Acceptance of living in 'social law' - righteous-wealth, fidelity in marital relationship & kindness in  behavior (स्वधन, स्वनारी/स्वपुरुष, दयापूर्ण व्यवहार)
  • Outcome -

    • Completion of systematic text-study & logical understanding, meaning comes in memory (विधिवत अध्ययन एवं तर्क संतुष्ट होना, शब्द-अर्थ - स्मरण में होना )
    • Desire for knowing and living according to the truth (वास्तविकता को जानने एवं जीने के लिए इच्छा )
      • Living with acceptance and practice of righteous wealth, chastity in marital relationship & kindness in behaviour


Ground 2: Reflection & Meditation (मनन)  -> (Preparation for Concentration)

  • Semblance of Reality complete (आभास पूरा ) - becomes apparent
  • Contemplative Practice  (साक्षात्कार  के लिए अभ्यास ) 

    • Discriminating Study (विवेकात्मक अध्ययन):
    • Deliberating/evaluation on the basis of Justice-Religion-Truth (न्याय धर्म सत्य तुलन)
    • Scrutiny & Observation (निरीक्षण परीक्षण) of (a)Existence, (b)Activities in the Self or jeevan & (c) Living.
    • Witnessing, evaluating & understanding the activities in the Mun, vritti, chitta (मन, वृत्ति, चित्त)
    • Distinguish between changing and changeless dimensions of reality & laws of living
  • Behavioral Practice (व्यवहाराभ्यास)

    • Living according to Intellectual law, Social law, Natural law - नियम अनुसार जीना + व्यवस्था में भागीदारी 
    • In Family: Fulfilment of human responsibilities and duties - participation in justice, production/seva & exchange - परिवार व्यवस्था में भागीदारी 
    • In Society - via the family, participation towards the larger order/good - in education, public awareness, health, production, etc -  समाज व्यवस्था में भागीदारी 
    • Inculcating/Practicing of humane values or bhavas such as  Trust, Respect, Affection, Non-Accumulation, Humility, Generosity, Gratitude, Reverence, etc.
    • Letting go of, or weeding of tendencies and acceptances that are inhumane.
  • Practice of Work (कर्माभ्यास)

    • Physical efforts needed for fulfillment of material needs that are synchronous with 'natural law' and 'social law'
    • Experience confidence & fearlessness in the material sphere (not related to money)
  • Outcome

    • Intense Desire - Priority established of Justice-Religion-Truth over Preference-Health-Profit (मानसिकता, अर्थात चित्त वृत्तियों में न्याय-धर्म-सत्य का प्राथमिकता , तीव्र इच्छा होना) 
    • Living with semblance of humanness (मानवीय जीवन का आभास पूरा होना)
      • Living in Social Law, Natural law, semblance of Intellectual law (non-accumulation, affection,  straightforwardness & fearlessness)
      • Regulation of the agitations such as infatuation, greed, malice, vanity, anger and passion, and tendencies such as obstinancy &  pride.
    • Concentrating the mental faculties on the realities to be known (Existence, Conscious Self & Humane Conduct that exist in memory/as imaging) (स्मरण रूपी श्रवण के अर्थ में चित्त वृत्ति द्वारा ध्यान देना - अस्तित्व, चैतन्य जीवन एवं मानवीय आचरण)


Ground 3: Direct-Perception  & preformation -> Stability & Concentration

(साक्षात्कार, अवधारणा)

  • Direct identification/understanding of the realities of Justice-Religion-Truth devoid of logic, form, words & living accordingly (रूप गुण स्वभाव धर्म के संयुक्त रूप में साक्षात्कार)
  • Having credibility (प्रतीति). Definitive acceptance  (निश्चयात्मक स्वीकृति): Comprehending, understanding the meaning, Reality. (वास्तविकता का साक्षात्कार एवं स्वीकृति)
  • Alternative terms - प्रतीति, साक्षात्कार, निदिध्यासन
  • Contemplative Practice (चिन्तनाभ्यास) and Behavioral Practice (व्यवहाराभ्यास)

    • Contemplation on the Truths known, the purpose of Entities & Living accordingly with humane conduct (वस्तुओं के प्रयोजन पर चिंतन, मानवीय दृष्टि विषय स्वभाव सहित जीना अभ्यास)
  • Knowledge of  state-full truth & relative truth as-it-is ( वस्तुगत सत्य, वस्तु स्थिति सत्य).
  • Outcome

    • Stability from Sakshatkar (स्थिरता)Avdharna (अवधारणा)
      • Establishment (धारणा) & Regulation of the mental faculties in developed human consciousness (मानवीयतापूर्ण जीवन के अनन्तर न्याय-धर्म-सत्य रूपी वांछित वस्तु देश एवं तत्व में चित्त वृत्तियों का संयंत होना)
      • Awakening of Activity-Force (क्रिया शक्ति जागरण)
      • Awakening of the Desiring-Force (इच्छा शक्ति जागरण)
      • Happiness, Peace & Contentment (सख, शांति, संतोष)
    • Non-occurance of the agitations such as infatuation, greed, malice, vanity, anger and passion, and tendencies such as obstinancy &  pride.
    • Developed Human Consciousness with Positive Ego, humane perspectives, characteristics (steadfastness, courage, generosity) & wishes.


Ground 4: Total Comprehension & Realization

(पूर्ण बोध, अनुभव)   ->  ध्यान,  केंद्रीकृत ध्यान

  • Total Comprehension (पूर्ण बोध)

    • On having complete regulation or mastery on Fixity, the mental faculties get concentrated on the desired region or essential region of such Fixity (establishment) (धारणा पर पूर्णाधिकार के अनन्तर उसके वांछित भाग अथवा सारभूत भाग में चित्त-वृत्तियों का केन्द्रीभूत होना - निष्ठा , ध्यान ) 
    • Comprehension of oneself (स्व-बोध) and Void (व्यापक)
    • The activities in the jeevan now get aligned according to the nucleus.
    • Continuance of Behavioral Practice.
  • Complete Realization (पूर्णअनुभूति)

    • Complete Acceptance of absolute truth, state-full truth and relative truth (स्थिति सत्य, वस्तुगत सत्य, वस्तुस्थिति सत्य की पूर्ण स्वीकृति)
    • Direct Experience of ultimate nature of Reality: of Coexistence, of Self & human nature: Complete knowledge of Pervasive Space (Brahman), Coexistence,  evolution, development, awakening progression, awakening = 'Material and Conscious nature saturated in pervasive space (व्यापक सत्ता में भीगा, घिरा, डूबा प्रकृति का बोध एवं अनुभव)
    • The satisfaction point of knowing and believing. Nothing left to be "known".
  • Outcome 

    • Immersion of the chitta, vritti & sankalpa (buddhi) in but the meaning, the value of the Aim. (ध्येय के मूल्य मात्र में, अथवा अर्थ मात्र में चित्त वृत्ति एवं संकल्प (बुद्धि) का निमग्न होना - सत्तामयता में अनुभूति)
    • Awakening of the Knowledge-Force (ज्ञान शक्ति जागरण)
    • Living with evidence of Realization, Thought & Behavior (अनुभव, विचार, व्यव्हार प्रमाण,)
    • Happiness, Peace, Contentment & Bliss (सुख, शांति, संतोष, आनंद की निरंतरता)
  • Perfect Humane Conduct.



1. The study of reality according to Madhyasth Darshan does not include any  ‘ prevalent meditative-practices’, ‘need to close ones eyes’,  or ‘mystical-experiences’. This is being mentioned here in order to avoid confusing this with other philosophies/darshan, where the words like ‘Shravan, Manan, Nididhyasan’, etc used are similar, but with a different intended meaning. See definitions.
2. The objectives, method & outcomes of study in madhyasth darshan does not derive from or based on Vedanta, the YogaSutras or Buddhism, etc. Terms may be similar or have some overlaps.
3. Stages 1, 2 &   3 above are both sequential and cyclical. Success in Study needs guidance from a living competent human being, that has this understanding.
See  Guidance for Study for suggestion on how to proceed.


Original Guidance by Shri A.Nagraj 

डाउनलोड करें 

इस लिंक पर निम्न सामग्री उपब्ध है

  • अध्ययन विधि सारांश संकलन
  • अध्ययन प्रक्रिया पर संकलित संवाद
  • अभ्यास-अध्ययन प्रक्रिया पर पुस्तकों से संकलित सूत्र
  • अभ्यास-अध्ययन प्रक्रिया संबंधी मुख्य परिभाषाएं
  • 'अध्ययन रूपी उपासना' संकलन 


The information in this page is meant to be a beginners overview. Always maintain the original guidance from Shri A.Nagraj as reference for your study!
-shriram n | student | june 2013 | updated - January 2017 | revised - February 2022
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